Appendix

Some data from the first two annual reports from the Clinical Hospital for the Diseases of Children.

Table 7: Deaths in relation to ages during the first two years of the hospital [2].
Under 6 months of 186 patients 29 died 24.8%
From 6 to 12 months of 195 patients 18 died 15.4%
From 1 to 2 years of 345 patients 49 died 41.9%
From 2 to 3 years of 220 patients 9 died 7.7%
From 3 to 4 years of 602 patients 12 died 10.2%
1548 117 100.0%

“SIGNS AND MANIFESTATIONS OF GOOD DEVELOPMENT.Of 530 children, those who enjoyed a strong constitution, a favourable state of development, and exhibited promising prospects for its future progress, had, in the great majority,

At the age of eight months:
at least two teeth; the fontanelle not wider than one inch, the circumference of the skull not exceeding that of the chest by more than one inch.
At thirteen months:
eight teeth or more; the fontanelle ossified; the skull not exceeding the chest by more than one inch and a half; and being able to walk.
At two years:
having all the twenty teeth; the skull not exceeding the chest by more than one inch.
At three years:
the skull in circumference nearly equal to, or even surpassing the chest.
At four years:
the chest exceeding the skull in circumference.
At eight years:
the chest exceeding the skull by at least two to three inches.”

Table 8: Course of dentition in those deemed to have good or bad development [1].
In Children with GOOD development In Children with BAD development
in 161, so far as the mothers could remember, or we could ascertain, the first pair of teeth were cut: in 119, partly seen at the time of the first teeth, partly according to mothers’ statements, the first pair of teeth appeared:
at 2 months in 3 at 2 months in 1
at 3 months in 9 at 3 months in 6
at 4 months in 10 at 4 months in 11
at 5 months in 22 at 5 months in 12
at 6 months in 42 at 6 months in 10
at 7 months in 22 at 7 months in 22
at 8 months in 20 at 8 months in 8
at 9 months in 18 at 9 months in 9
between 10 and 12 months 12 between 10 and 12 months 20
between 12 and 14 months 3 between 12 and 14 months 26
after 14 months 0 after 14 months 16
161 119

In children of GOOD development:
At the age of from 5 to 7 months, closed in 3, open in all the others
8 months, closed in 2, open in all the others
9 months, closed in 2, open in all the others
10 months, closed in 2, open in all the others
11 months, closed in 4, open in 11
12 months, closed in 11, open in 3
13 months, closed in 13, open in 3
14 months, closed in 13, open in 2
15 months, closed in 9, open in 0
15 to 18 all closed, with 2 exceptions
After the 18th month it was not open in one having a good development.

Table 9: State of anterior fontanelle in those deemed to have good or bad development [1].
In children of BAD development:
At the age of 7 months, closed in 1, open in all the others
11 months, closed in 1, open in all the others
12 months, closed in 3, open in 14
13 months, closed in 1, open in 12
14 months, closed in 5, open in 11
15 months, closed in 4, open in 12
16 months to 3 years, closed in 13, open in 14
In a few individuals, we found it open at from 3 to 4 years
these were most unfavourably developed, or rachitic.

Table 10: Age of walking in those deemed to have good or bad development [1].
Of 164 children with GOOD development: Of 137 children with BAD development:
At the age of 9 months, began to walk: 9 At the age of 9 months, began to walk: 0
10 months, began to walk: 16 10 months, began to walk: 1
11 months, began to walk: 29 11 months, began to walk: 2
12 months, began to walk: 44 12 months, began to walk: 8
13 months, began to walk: 26 13 months, began to walk: 4
14 months, began to walk: 15 14 months, began to walk: 10
15 months, began to walk: 16 15 months, began to walk: 14
16 months, began to walk: 5 16 months, began to walk: 20
18 months, began to walk: 3 17 months, began to walk: 22
20 months, began to walk: 1 Between 18 months and 3 years 48
After the 3rd year 8
Total: 164 Total: 137
None later than at the 20th month Of the last named 8 however, 7 were ricketty.

Table 11: Sanitary condition of mothers and their supply of breast-milk [2].

Table 12: Relationship of nutrition to development [2].

References

  1. Merei, A. S. and J. Whitehead. First Report of the Clinical Hospital for Disease of Children, Stevenson Square, Manchester, 1856.
  2. Merei, A. S. and J. Whitehead. Second Report of the Clinical Hospital for Disease of Children, Stevenson Square, Manchester, 1857.

Leave a Reply